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WHO recommended guidelines for epidemic preparednessand response : Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) also has a lot of good information.
About Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever
Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola HF) is one of numerous Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers. It is a severe, often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (such as monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees).
Ebola HF is caused by infection with a virus of the family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus. When infection occurs, symptoms usually begin abruptly. The first Ebolavirus species was discovered in 1976 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo near the Ebola River. Since then, outbreaks have appeared sporadically.
There are five identified subspecies of Ebolavirus. Four of the five have caused disease in humans: Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus); Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus); Taï Forest virus (Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus); and Bundibugyo virus (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). The fifth, Reston virus (Reston ebolavirus), has caused disease in nonhuman primates, but not in humans.
The natural reservoir host of ebolaviruses remains unknown. However, on the basis of available evidence and the nature of similar viruses, researchers believe that the virus is zoonotic (animal-borne) with bats being the most likely reservoir. Four of the five subtypes occur in an animal host native to Africa.
A host of similar species is probably associated with Reston virus, which was isolated from infected cynomolgous monkeys imported to the United States and Italy from the Philippines. Several workers in the Philippines and in US holding facility outbreaks became infected with the virus, but did not become ill.
TransmissionBecause the natural reservoir of ebolaviruses has not yet been proven, the manner in which the virus first appears in a human at the start of an outbreak is unknown. However, researchers have hypothesized that the first patient becomes infected through contact with an infected animal.
When an infection does occur in humans, there are several ways in which the virus can be transmitted to others. These include:
- direct contact with the blood or secretions of an infected person
- exposure to objects (such as needles) that have been contaminated with infected secretions
During outbreaks of Ebola HF, the disease can spread quickly within health care settings (such as a clinic or hospital). Exposure to ebolaviruses can occur in health care settings where hospital staff are not wearing appropriate protective equipment, such as masks, gowns, and gloves.
Proper cleaning and disposal of instruments, such as needles and syringes, is also important. If instruments are not disposable, they must be sterilized before being used again. Without adequate sterilization of the instruments, virus transmission can continue and amplify an outbreak.
Signs and SymptomsSymptoms of Ebola HF typically include:
- Joint and muscle aches
- Stomach pain
- Lack of appetite
- A Rash
- Red Eyes
- Sore throat
- Chest pain
- Difficulty breathing
- Difficulty swallowing
- Bleeding inside and outside of the body
Some who become sick with Ebola HF are able to recover, while others do not. The reasons behind this are not yet fully understood. However, it is known that patients who die usually have not developed a significant immune response to the virus at the time of death.
Risk of ExposureIn Africa, confirmed cases of Ebola HF have been reported in:
- Sierra Leone
- Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
- South Sudan
- Ivory Coast
- Republic of the Congo (ROC)
- South Africa (imported)
During outbreaks of Ebola HF, those at highest risk include health care workers and the family and friends of an infected individual. Health care workers in Africa should consult the Infection Control for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers In the African Health Care Setting to learn how to prevent and control infections in these setting. Medical professionals in the United States should consult the Interim Guidance for Managing Patients with Suspected Viral Hemorrhagic Fever in U.S. Hospitals [PDF - 60KB].
DiagnosisDiagnosing Ebola HF in an individual who has been infected for only a few days is difficult, because the early symptoms, such as red eyes and a skin rash, are nonspecific to ebolavirus infection and are seen often in patients with more commonly occurring diseases.
However, if a person has the early symptoms of Ebola HF and there is reason to believe that Ebola HF should be considered, the patient should be isolated and public health professionals notified. Samples from the patient can then be collected and tested to confirm infection.
TreatmentStandard treatment for Ebola HF is still limited to supportive therapy. This consists of:
- balancing the patient’s fluids and electrolytes
- maintaining their oxygen status and blood pressure
- treating them for any complicating infections
However, if a person has the early symptoms of Ebola HF and there is reason to believe that Ebola HF should be considered, the patient should be isolated and public health professionals notified. Supportive therapy can continue with proper protective clothing until samples from the patient are tested to confirm infection.
Experimental treatments have been tested in animals but have not yet been tested in humans for safety or effectiveness.
The prevention of Ebola HF presents many challenges. Because it is still unknown how exactly people are infected with Ebola HF, there are few established primary prevention measures.
When cases of the disease do appear, there is increased risk of transmission within health care settings. Therefore, health care workers must be able to recognize a case of Ebola HF and be ready to employ practical viral hemorrhagic fever isolation precautions or barrier nursing techniques. They should also have the capability to request diagnostic tests or prepare samples for shipping and testing elsewhere.
- wearing of protective clothing (such as masks, gloves, gowns, and goggles)
- the use of infection-control measures (such as complete equipment sterilization and routine use of disinfectant)
- isolation of Ebola HF patients from contact with unprotected persons.
CDC, in conjunction with the World Health Organization, has developed a set of guidelines to help prevent and control the spread of Ebola HF. Entitled Infection Control for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers In the African Health Care Setting, the manual describes how to:
- recognize cases of viral hemorrhagic fever (such as Ebola HF)
- prevent further transmission in health care setting by using locally available materials and minimal financial resources.
Source: Centers For Disease Controls and Prevention
It seems that the Black Berkey purification elements would work well.
Below is the full reply:
ALGAE BLOOM – FAQ
Below is some information that might be helpful, with respect to the recent Algae
Bloom and resulting contamination of the water supply to Toledo, Ohio:
“…Cyanobacterial cells range in size from 0.5-1 μm to 40 μm in diameter…”
In other words, it's a long skinny bacteria.
Internet research seems to indicate that cyanobacteria are even larger, typically
on the scale of 150 micrometers in size.
While we have not tested the specific microbes associated with Algae Blooms, we
have tested other pathogenic bacteria and two viruses, which are a small fraction
of the size of these microbes.
To understand the difference between the size of pathogenic bacteria and
viruses, we suggest the following web link as it will give you a great visual of the
The University of Utah Cell Size and Scale Chart:
Slide the scale at the bottom to see the size of virus vs bacteria vs other potential
contaminates and magnify to greater levels.
Black Berkey™ purification elements have been tested to remove both
pathogenic bacteria and viruses to greater than the EPA purification standards.
This suggests that larger bacteria, such as cyanobacteria, should also be
effectively removed. Without test data on that specific microbe however, NMCL
does not make that specific claim.
The MS-2 virus is 24-26 nm in size.
The Fr Coliphage virus is 25nm in size.
In other words, they are over 1,000 times smaller than Cyanobateria.
Additionally Microcystins, which are the chemical contaminates resulting from
cyanobacteria are an organic chemical. Testing of Black Berkey™ elements has
demonstrated they are extremely efficient at removing organic chemicals.
The EPA defines Microcystins as: “…toxins produced by cyanobacteria.
Cyanobacteria are also known as blue-green algae and are ubiquitous in surface water
when conditions are favorable for growth and formation of algal blooms. Cyanobacteria
release toxins upon cell death or lysis. When released, toxins may persist for weeks to
months. Toxins of most concern are microcystins. Microcystins take their name from the
genera Microcystis. Most microcystins are hepatotoxins (liver toxins). Hepatotoxins are
produced by species of the genera Microcystis, Anabena, Nodularia, Oscillatoria among
others. Most microcystins are associated with Microcystis aeruginosa. While the liver is
the primary target of microcystins, it is also a skin, eye and throat irritant…”
Further, the EPA states that: “…The following processes are considered effective for
the removal/oxidation of microcystin:…. powdered activated carbon (up to 100% for
some microcystins but less so for others), granular activated carbon (time-dependent
from 100% near start up to 38 to 73% at 3.5 months…”
Finally, the EPA states that: “…Removal of total microcystins, M-LR, and M-LA, in
water by granular activated carbon (GAC) can be very effective where the effectiveness
is based on the empty bed contact time, the carbon's age, and possible biodegradation
of the toxin. Time-dependent monitoring in a full-scale plant ranged 43 to 60 percent
removal for M-LR. Time-dependent monitoring in pilot-scale studies ranged from greater
than 99 percent at one month to 73 percent at 3.5 months for M-LR, and from greater
than 99 percent at one month to 38 percent at 3.5 months for M-LA…”
Based upon the above Internet research, Black Berkey™ element microbe and
organic chemical removal test data and the information provided by the EPA in
their reference material cited above; these all suggest that Berkey® water
purification systems should be extremely effective at removing and reducing
contaminates resulting from the current algae bloom. NMCL also highly
recommends that whenever possible, the cleanest source water available should
always be utilized.
Check this link to see what its like for people trying to buy water in Toledo.
Building up Diabetic supplies…
Here is what we do. Basically it is like the “pantry” system for food. We order just a little extra with each order. Not much, just a little more than we need. In about a year and a half you’ll have a good amount on hand. Just make sure and keep it rotated out!! What those dates! (You’ll notice numbers on the strip cartons, they are months. Also that picture is really old. We don’t have any 2012 stuff! hahaha!!)
Build a good relationship with your doctor…
Things got a little worrisome at my job and it looked like their might be a layoff, so we told our doctor our concern and he increased our prescription for insulin so we could store a little extra just in case. not sure if all doctors are this way but when we got started I mentioned I liked having extra insulin on hand in case of an emergency. So we worked it out where we would get a little extra insulin with a 3 month order and that helped to get us ahead.
Build a network…
No man is an island… get networked with other diabetics in your community. Work together. You’ll be surprised how many people keep extra supplies on hand. Plus sometimes people will change meters and have a few boxes of test strips or switch gauge needles, etc… they might give you some or sell to you cheaper than you could buy them.
We have ran out of Ketonestrips once (key word ONCE! Hahaha!!) and had a sick child and it was late at night. One phone call and we had a bottle in less than 15 minutes.
We have a list of Diabetic Parents we keep, and the group is quick to reach out to newly diabetic parents to help them cope.
Keeping your cool…
Diabetic Emergency Supplies…We keep an emergency Diabetic Supplies kit in all our vehicles.
These are basically for the “Oops” times when my son runs out of something while we are out.
Yeah, it has happened. (They are all stored in a Gluclose tablet bottles, they are rotated our during the time change.)
Contents from picture… (From top to right):
10 – Pen Cap Needles (For Insulin Pen)
6 – 30 Unit Syringes (We are using the rest of the up and moving to the 50 unit ones.)
16 – Lancets
4 – 50 Unit Syringes
20 – Alcohol Prep Pads
I read “One Second After” and liked it a lot, recommended reading.
Regarding keeping the medicine cool, I think a portable compressor Freezer/Refrigerator like this one the Dometic (CDF-11) would be a good idea.
Thanks for your email and good luck!
wonder if you have looked into any other alternative/outside the norm
methods of heating your home since you moved to Europe.
I have heated with numerous sources over the years including electric,
natural gas, propane, kerosene and wood all of which have advantages
as well as disadvantages.
About 12 years ago while heating about 90% with wood and 10% with
natural gas I was researching something about wood stoves and ran
across the NEPA Crossroads forum (which has a small wood burning
section) which is a forum about burning the clean anthracite coal that
comes from Pennsylvania.
Long story short is that after several years of research I have been
heating 99% with a hand fired coal stove for the past four winters.
It is without a doubt the best heat I have ever been around and
allowed me to heat my house to the subtropic temperatures that my wife
prefers for about $450 last winter. (We see subzero F here in the
mountains of WV every year.)
I saved about 30% by trucking in a whole load of coal the 350 miles
directly from the mine.
Anyway if coal is available in your part of the world it may be an
option for you to look at.
My anthracite is cleaner than wood, stores forever, is not damaged by
water or bugs and is much less work with me only having to add coal
and shake down the ash once a day.
In fact when my son was born I was gone from the house for 40 hours
and the stove was still happily burning keeping the house nice and
warm for our return from the hospital.
Hope you and your are well!
Yes, Argentina is about to default again, very sad news.
This will only make the country lose eve more credibility, weakne the currency even more, send inflation through the roo and well, just make things worse for Arngentina and everyone in it.
As always thanks for your support!
pine trees. Many lost everything, including preps. Miraculously, nobody died, but half of an area known variously as "Moccasin Hill" or "Klamath Falls Forest Estates #1" was reduced to ash. Google "Moccasin Hill wildfire Klamath County Oregon" for more info, and be aware that local media often has limits on how many free articles you can read. Thought you'd like to know about it, especially considering the new release of your book about bugging out.
test for 60,000 if the wildfires damage the electrical-transmission
Matt is a great guy, I have the greatest respect for him and his work, which is some of the best, most realistic survival fiction I ever came across and I cant recommend it enough.
Why Bug Out?The subject of bugging out and bug out bags is a popular one and for good reason, disasters like hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes , flash floods or other natural disaster, could force survivors to “head for the hills” in search of safer ground.
We are constantly threatened by a series of potential disasters, both natural and man-made. It seems like we are being threatened from all sides, and sometimes, I admit to feeling like just throwing up my hands in despair and just giving up. It’s easy to give up. But I shake it off and prep harder than before. I’m funny like that…
We also face a series of potential long-term disasters including, ecological collapse, economic collapse, agriculture disaster, war, plague, pandemic, an over oppressive government or any number of disasters that could force the need to seek safer footing or even hide-out in the hills long-term.
Bugging Out Vs. Hunkering DownIf you’ve read my article bugging out vs. hunkering down then you already know that bugging out to the hills should be your last option, when you have no other choice.
Bug out bags should be considered as a temporary survival plan or as a backup at best. You should keep in mind if you are forced to leave your home or retreat; you have essentially made yourself a refugee, which is the last thing you want during hard times.
A bug out kit will keep you alive for a few days, or weeks… then what? You had better have a way to supply your basic needs after exhausting the gear contained in your bug out bag.
Keep in mind that we are not talking about bugging out from the city to a pre set-up and well-stocked retreat in the hills, if this is your plan then you might not need a “bug out bag” since you can just load everything into your car and take off. But still having essential, life-saving gear in “bug out bags” that is ready to grab and go is a good idea if you have to abandon your vehicle and head out on foot.
It would be great if you already have a stockpile of food, medications and gear waiting for you at a mountain retreat, let’s just hope that you can actually, get past the blocked roads, carjackers, checkpoints and other hazards that will be met along the way get there, unscathed.
If you do somehow, manage to make it through, all of the en-route hazards to your well-stocked retreat in the hills, still don’t be surprised when you’re “greeted” at the door by another family or group that has already, moved in. What would you do? They may outnumber you and be better armed… Will you walk away? Will you stay and fight for what is yours?
If at all possible, move to your retreat or relocate to a safer area now – before disaster strikes. Learn to grow your own food, raise small livestock and get to know your neighbors. I just hope that it’s not to late in the game for you to make the move. Time is running out and deep down I think that it’s already too late to relocate…
Bugging Out and Putting Together Your Bug Out BagAnyways, back to bugging out and how to put together a bug out bag…
Some survivalist aka “preppers” look at this type of bug out kit as an “escape and evasion” bag. Where they will use the kit as a grab and go bag that will be used if they’re forced to head out to the forest and mountains to hide from danger – for most this is a flawed idea.
Living completely free of civilization, scrounging for food and shelter in the forest, mountains or desert for any significant length of time can be done, under the right conditions, by some people. But it would not be easy and the constant struggle to stay alive would be more than many could handle and most would not make it very long.
But when you’re left with no other option, besides stay and die or bug out to the hills and maybe survive a few extra days, it’s worth a try, and having a “bug out or escape and evasion bag” ready to go will give you a better chance of making it…
The prospect of the hidden cave or dug out stocked with survival supplies should be a considered. Having a hidden cache of essential survival gear could mean the difference between death and survival if you’re forced to head for the hills.
I have several cache tubes hidden around my area, and have been working on putting in more. I will only leave my home / retreat if I have no other choice. I would rather stay and fight then run and hide, but if I have to run and hide, the hidden caches will give me a better chance of making it…
If it’s a natural disaster, where help will be on the way, but you have to leave for you immediate safety (say a hurricane is heading your way) would a friend or family member in a distant town take you in? You need to have a “disaster buddy” in another area, but still reachable in a few hours’ drive, with whom you’ve already made plans and have an agreement with, where if a disaster happens in your area that you can go to his place to wait it out and vice versa.
A government shelter, not for me thank you. I want to stay out of the FEMA camps. And who wants to be dependent on the government for their survival anyways? Not me. But then I’m one of those “wrong-headed” Americans who would rather trust their own wits and skills than the government to take care of them after a disaster (or anytime)… They just hate that.
What You Should Have in Your Bug Out BagOkay, so what should be included in a bug out bag? Well that depends on you personally – you’ll have to consider things, like your location and where you’re going, your health, your skills, and time of the year. That’s why that there’s no one bug out bag list that fits all needs and individuals. But by looking at bug out bag lists that have been put together by a number of different people, we can get ideas to work with and expand our bug out bags for our personal location and needs.(continue to the rest of the article)
Maybe you can shed some light on this on your blog. I have a Spyderco Endura, VG10 steel. It was razor sharp out of the box, but in time the blade got dull, and I have never been able to sharpen it with my wet stone back to factory standards. Meanwhile, I also have a Boker Magnum (looks like a Buck110 knock-off). It’s probably some cheap stainless steel, judging from the price I paid for it, but it takes a razor sharp edge with a couple of passes on the same wet stone and it retains the edge relatively well. So what make the VG10 steel better than say 1080, if it’s so hard to sharpen?Jose
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