Survival & Emergency Preparedness

The latest posts from Survival & Emergency Preparedness

When researching the Yaesu FT-817ND before I bought one, I ran across this neat little stand design by KR1ST, which uses a jewel case from a CD or DVD as the raw material. The only tools needed to make one are a sharp knife and a straight edge. Check out his site for instructions.

Since I had the case it didn't cost anything, and it took about five minutes to make.
Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: December 18, 2014, 11:41 pm
I had my first QSO using my Yaesu FT-817ND QRP rig and the Ultimax-100 antenna on my roof. Transmitting on 5 watts using the PSK-31 mode, I was able to complete a QSO with W0TY in St. Charles, MO. That's 823 miles from me.

Before W0TY replied to my CQ, a couple other hams did but when I replied to them directly they didn't come back. Such is the nature of radio communication, especially at low power.

To control the rig I used my Apple iPad 2 running PSKER, connected using an Easy Digi interface from KF5INZ.

Clifford Wareham, KF5INZ makes the Easy Digi interface for more than just Apple iThingies, and will supply the correct cables to connect your device to your rig. Highly recommended. The interface I bought will also work with my iPhone. Using either my iPad or iPhone, Clifford's little box in combination with my FT-817ND makes for a very portable digital communications setup.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: December 17, 2014, 9:05 pm
This morning I took a picture of the LiPo battery for the FT-817ND, along with the charger and low-voltage checker. The charger weighs only a few ounces while the checker's weight is negligible.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: December 5, 2014, 2:04 pm
After getting some recommendations from the Arfcom Ham Forum, I ordered a 5,000 mAh battery for the FT-817ND, a battery tester/low voltage alarm, and a battery charger from, who sells it in for use in radio controlled cars.
In contrast, the Yaesu FNB-85 NiMH battery pack has a capacity of only 1,400 mAh.
Lithium-polymer batteries have been adopted by many hams for portable use because they pack a lot more amp hours into a smaller, lighter package than AGM or SLA batteries.
I’m really looking forward to getting the FT-817ND into the field.

Edit 12/3/14:

I ordered the battery, charger, and voltage tester on Sunday 11/30, and received it from Hobbyking today, Wednesday, 12/3. When I got it I was confused at first because the Molex-type connector doesn't match the one on the radio. It turns out that it is the connector for charging the battery. The large red and black wires with bullet connectors are for powering other devices. I'm planning to cut off the bullet plugs and replace them with Anderson Power Poles.

Edit 12/4/14:

Here it is, with Power Poles installed.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: November 30, 2014, 5:54 pm

For awhile I’ve been looking for a small ham HF transceiver that I can bring with me on hikes or while camping. Some features I was looking for include:

  • Good battery life
  • Light weight/small size
  • Can transmit and receive on both 80M and 40M, for NVIS use.
  • SSB capability, since I don’t know code (maybe someday).
  • Reasonable cost.

I really wanted the Youkits TJ5A to meet my needs, but unfortunately it doesn’t do 80M. There are a lot of QRP rigs for under $1,000 but most of them are for CW. MFJ makes the 94xx series (9417 for 17M, 9420 for 20M, and the 9440 for 40M, etc.) but from what I’ve read they aren’t suitable for digital modes due to too much drift.

So, the two leading contenders for my use were the Yaesu FT-817ND and FT-857D. Both of them not only support HF ops, but also 2M and 70cm, and are all-mode. E.g, I’ll be able to try out 2M SSB, whereas most VHF radios are FM-only.

I would up getting an FT-817ND at the Delaware Ham Radio Outlet. I chose it over the 857D because it is tiny and has less current draw. Along with the radio I got an LDG Z-817H tuner, which is rated for up to 50W, in case I ever get an amp for the rig.


In the picture above I put my Victorinox Farmer Swiss Army Knife on top of the rig for scale. It’s 3.5” long.

The rig can be powered via 8 AA cells in an internal bay, a rechargeable battery pack that goes in the same bay, or an external DC power source.

The DC power cord that ships with the FT-817ND has a plug that connects into the radio and bares wires on the other end. I’m currently using one of these adapters from Powerwerx to connect the rig to my power supply. Quicksilver Radio sells a replacement cord with Power Poles already installed on the ends, which I’ll get if I can’t install the APPs to my satisfaction.

Since the FT-817ND is all-mode capable on all bands, that means you can use SSB on 2M or 70cm. The vast majority of 2M/70cm rigs are FM-only, but the 817 opens up the possibility of not just SSB but digital modes like PSK-31 and MT63, for which you normally have the rig set to SSB. In a SHTF/WROL situation, this has the potential for increasing COMSEC, since most folks won’t be looking for it, nor be capable of decyphering your signals.

After I’ve had the chance to use the rig for awhile I’ll post a more in-depth article about it.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: November 29, 2014, 2:58 am

I just ran across this video by IA Woodsman on how to construct a winter tarp shelter. It’s well worth watching.

Winter Tarp Shelter by IA Woodsman
Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: November 27, 2014, 12:55 am
As found at

The “Bucket Repeater” is a battery powered cross-band VHF/UHF repeater in a weather proof enclosure that can operate unattended for a week or more, and be remotely activated or deactivated from miles away as needed.


I will say that he's probably get better performance by substituting a 1/4 ground plane or copper J-pole for the magnet mount antenna. The latter has the advantage of easy mounting, not to mention the fact that you can buy a decent one from Amazon for around $20, already assembled.

A cross-band repeater like this is valuable for groups who want to communicate over distances or terrain which would normally block an FM signal. For example, you might have two people who need to communicate via UHF or VHF, but one's home is located in a hollow, the sides of which block the radio signal. A cross-band repeater like the one described in the linked article could be placed up in a tree on an intervening hill, allowing two-way communication.

An alternative if you do not have a radio capable of cross band repeat is a simplex repeater like the MFJ-662 or Argent Data Systems ADS-SR1, which use the store-and-forward technique. A simplex repeater might be easier to setup, but cross band repeaters provide better realtime commo.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: November 25, 2014, 2:41 pm

One of the most important items in a survival kit is a good light. Sometimes, you don’t need the blinding power of modern LED tactical lights, just a handy flashlight to help you navigate in the dark, find the keys you dropped, or light up a noise in the yard.

For around the house use I have picked up a bunch of the small, AAA-powered 9-LED flashlights from Harbor Freight. I always get HF coupons in the mail, paper, or the American Rifleman, and there’s usually one for a free light with any purchase. I don’t think I’ve paid for any of the at least six HF flashlights that I have.

That said, the HF lights are cheap, as in chintzy. They use three AAA cells rather than AAs, which I’ve tried to standardize on. The size is very handy, though, so I decided to try the similar AA-powered Cree LED lights from China available from places like Deal Extreme or Amazon.

Also, one of my friends who uses flashlights more than I do gave up on the HF lights after several of them failed, and switched over to the little Cree single AA cell lights.

The first order I placed was for 4 of the lights from an Amazon seller shipping from China. I waited a week past the expected delivery date without them showing, then got a refund from Amazon. I then ordered a pair from a supplier based in the US, Hausbell. They came in two days via Amazon Prime Sunday delivery. In the first picture I have one of the HF lights, one of the Hausbells, and my Victorinox Pioneer Farmer SAK for scale (it is 3.5” long).


(The small blue light attached to the knife is by eGear. I bought it at REI for about ten bucks. It’s come in handy on numerous occasions and I hardly notice carrying it.)

The specs provided by the importer are 7W, 300 Lumen output. It’s supposed to be waterproof. Powered is provided by a single AA cell.

The Hausbell light feels more substantial in the hand than the HF light. The HF light has a small loop attached to it, while the Hausbell has a pocket clip. I wanted to see if the Hausbell would work as a headlamp, so I attache it to the brim of my cap, but it’s too heavy. If it was a little lighter I’d reattach the clip pointing the other way (after drilling and tapping two hole) but I’m not going to bother.

Both lights have tailcap switches but the Hausbell’s is recessed to prevent it from being activated by accident. This also allows the Hausbell to stand on end, while the HF light has to lean on something.


This shows the one Cree  LED emitter of the Hausbell and the nine of the HF light. I don’t have a good pic but the light color of the Hausbell is a bit nicer, with less of a blue tint than the HF’s.


You can change the focus of the Cree LED by moving the bezel in or out. When in, the light is more of a flood. Extended, it’s a narrower beam and when shone on a surface you actually see the outline of the emitter. The HF beam is not adjustable.

The Hausbell is much brighter than the HF light. The latter is good for use up close, but doesn’t throw very far. In flood mode the Hausbell will light up most of my suburban backyard, and when focused down it will cast a beam at least 75 yards.

A few different versions of the Cree-based lights are available. E.g., different case colors, multi-mode units, and some come packaged with # 14500 cells and a recharger. There are also mounts that will clamp the Cree lights to a bicycle handlebar, making it into an inexpensive but reasonably powerful headlight.

As part of my effort to lose weight and get in better shape, I’ve been walking laps of my neighborhood after dinner. I’ve been carrying either a Rayovac, HF, or Fenix light. The Rayovac and the Fenix are both longer and heavier than the Hausbell. I’m switching to the new light. It’s more than bright enough and easier to carry in my pocket.

Both lights are useful. The Hausbell is more substantial and better made. The HF light weighs a little less, and can be picked up for free with a coupon if you’re buying something at Harbor Freight. The HF lights are good for around the house and for giving to kids or other people who tend to lose things. They are almost disposable. In contrast, the Hausbell feels like a solid unit that will give years of service, and comes at low cost.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: November 24, 2014, 2:07 am

One of the most popular pieces of gear issued to American troops is the poncho liner, or “woobie.” Developed in the 1960s or 70s, it’s basically a lightweight quilt with ties around the perimeter, allowing you to tie it into a poncho and use them together as a warm weather sleeping bag. It can be used to add a bit more warmth to a sleeping bag, and you can also use the ties to secure the woobie as a sunshade.

I’ve used an old ERDL camo VietNam-vintage woobie for camping off and on since the late 1980s. Lately, I’ve been sleeping in a recliner at home because of back issues, and dug it out of my camping gear to serve as a blanket.

Back in the ‘80s and ‘90s, Brigade Quartermaster offered a poncho liner with Thinsulate instead of the old fashioned polyester batting insulation. They are long out of production, but other vendors now sell poncho liners/woobies that are both warmer and more compressible than the GI poncho liner.  Among them are:

All of them are quality pieces of gear.  The Woobie Express and Mountain Serape are designed so that can wear them as a great coat. Of these newer designs, I decided to try out the Jungle Blanket.

I chose the JB for its reasonable price, the good reputation of the manufacturer, and it’s feature set. Specifically, I wanted a blanket, I don’t mind the lack of ties, it’s very compressible and comes with a stuff sack, and one side is wind proof and water resistant.

Snugpak gives it a comfort rating of 45 degrees with a low of 36 degrees.

Even using it in the house, the increased warmth of the Jungle Blanket over my four decade old GI poncho liner is noticeable.

I also took it out on my back patio while it was in the upper 30s, and wrapped myself up, using it like a matchcoat over just a T-shirt and dress shirt. There wasn’t much of a breeze and after a few minutes it warmed up nicely.

Due to the texture of the material, I had to hold the JB in place.  With a belt or cord to hold it in place around your waist, and maybe a safety pin to keep it up around your chest, it would make a pretty decent survival blanket/coat down into the upper 30s.

I remain a fan of the GI poncho liner for warm weather or for adding a little bit of warmth to a sleeping bag, and doing it at a low price. However, the Snugpak Jungle Blanket is a definite improvement offering more warmth with less bulk, and at a price point just a little north of the old woobie.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: November 16, 2014, 3:20 pm

I got the chance to fire off a few rounds of CCI Quiet .22 LR yesterday. It's a 40 grain lead round nose bullet at 710 FPS. Last month I got 2 bricks of it from Midway.

From my daughter's Savage Rascal with a 16.25" barrel, it makes less noise than a high powered spring piston air rifle. Remington CBee loads are louder.

From my Beretta 71 pistol it's a lot louder and sounds like a gun. It did not have enough oomph to cycle the action. I'm looking forward to trying it in my Ruger 22/45 with suppressor. I'm hoping the can will add enough back pressure to allow the gun to cycle.

I didn't test for accuracy as we were in a friend's yard plinking.

If you can find some and you have a gun that shoots it well, the CCI Quiet should make a good load for discrete pest control or small game hunting.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: November 16, 2014, 3:12 pm

I thought this was a clever trick.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: October 30, 2014, 1:44 pm
This site has a ton of old books on everything from farming to Boy Scout manuals, engineering, chemistry, education, and radio. They can be downloaded as PDFs or ePub files.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: October 28, 2014, 12:46 pm
About a month or so ago I got a Kovea LPG adapter to use with my Kovea Spider stove. The little butane canisters that the Spider is intended to run on are handy, but sometimes they aren't available locally. In contrast, 1 lb. propane bottles are available pretty much everywhere, including stores like Target, Walmart, and local supermarkets. This weekend, I had the chance to test the LPG adapter for the first time.

Friends and I went on a camping/hunting trip in Tioga County, PA. The temperatures ranged from the upper 30s to the 60s. Most of our stove use was probably when it was in the 40s. I used the Spider with the LPG adapter to make coffee in my percolator and warm water for dish washing.

When using butane or butane/propane mix canisters, the stove makes a noise a bit like a jet engine. When using the 1 lb. propane bottles through the adapter, it sounds like an jet with the afterburner kicked in. When using the adapter the stove's flame needs more attention to prevent flare ups. I may need to tweak the pressure adjustment, which is done with a very small flat bladed screwdriver.

I didn't do any scientific testing to see if the stove boils water with one fuel or the other. My reason for getting the LPG adapter was to improve the stove's versatility, and in that it succeeded quite well. For that purpose I recommend it, even though I expect that going forward, I'll probably use the butane or butane/propane mix canisters for convenience, and keep the LPG adapter in reserve.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: October 27, 2014, 6:56 pm


Late last month, a security breach occurred, involving a web server at ARRL Headquarters. ARRL IT Manager Mike Keane, K1MK, said that League members have no reason to be concerned about sensitive personal information being leaked.


If you have a login at, I suggest you go change your password.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: October 8, 2014, 2:01 pm
N2EI has made his book, Radio Monitoring A How To Guide, freely available under the Creative Commons License. Go download it here.

{Hat tip to Sparks.}

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: October 3, 2014, 1:12 pm

It was just brought to my attention that Amazon carries the Baofeng UV-5R with a 3600 mAH battery included, instead of the 1800 mAH battery. At $38 shipped, that’s a great deal.

Don’t forget to order a better antenna than the stock rubber duck. If I were buying now, I’d order a SMA-female to BNC-female adapter and find a highly rated antenna that uses a BNC connector. By doing so, you eliminate wear on the radio’s antenna connection, and make it much faster to change out antennas.

An N9TAX roll-up slim jim antenna with a BNC connector would be a good match for the Baofeng when operating from a static location.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: September 19, 2014, 4:15 pm

Out in my shop I have a CCrane CCradio-EP AM/FM radio for background noise while I work. I mostly listen to music on a few FM stations, including 102.5 WRFY out in Reading, for which reception has been iffy, so I looked into getting a better FM antenna. Not wanting to spend a lot of money, I got this simple dipole from Amazon.

The dipole appears to be made from 300 Ohm twinlead, and has plastic ends on each leg of the dipole, each of which has a small hole in it so you can tack it up to a wall. The feed leg has an F-connector, which attaches directly to the matching connector on the back of the radio.

This morning I got the chance to give it a try and so far I’m pleased with it. For about $8, it noticeably improved my reception of the Reading station, and even the closer stations come in better.

The CCrane radio has a separate, internal ferrite antenna for AM reception. The local AM news station, KYW 1060, comes in very strong in the entire Philly metro area, and beyond, so a better antenna isn’t needed in my application.

You can have the best radio but if you don’t have a good antenna it’ll be worthless. If you’re having problems with the built-in antenna of your radio, look into an aftermarket antenna.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: September 13, 2014, 8:24 pm

The other day I posted about the University of Pennsylvania’s N3KZ linked repeater system. Penn’s system is far from unique, even in PA. Going to lets you find the linked repeater systems for your state.

Incidentally, Repeaterbook has a nice app for both Android and iThingies that will let you look up nearby repeaters, even if you do not have a data connection on your phone or tablet.

As I mentioned earlier linked repeaters are not a full substitute for an HF rig and NVIS, but they may be a useful tool in the event of an emergency. Many repeaters have emergency power, and many of us live within range of multiple repeaters. For example, from my home, I can directly hit two N3KZ repeaters which are geographically dispersed. The closest one is in the Roxborough neighborhood in Philadelphia, while the other one is near Robesonia, in Lebanon County. They are about 30 miles apart. I’m also able to hit repeaters in AllStar and WAN networks. Some repeaters may be linked to more than one link network. E.g., W3WAN in Roxborough is connected to both the AllStar and WAN networks.

Linking is done largely over the Internet. If it’s full-blown  TEOTWAWKI obviously you cannot depend on the ‘net. However, in a lot of SHTF situations you can. For example, on 9/11/01 I was able to communicate with family members on Long Island via AOL Instant Messenger even when phone lines into the NYC metro area were unusable.

In an emergency a lot of communications are done by hams over VHF and UHF. If you have a VHF/UHF rig, I encourage you to program as many nearby repeaters into is as possible, especially if they are linked.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: September 13, 2014, 2:05 pm

“Machinegunseabee” posted a thread on Arfcom detailing what gear has worked form him in a (now) 18 year Navy career, over several deployments. IMO, a lot of his info is valuable for preppers.

Check it out here.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: September 13, 2014, 1:46 pm

The University of Pennsylvania runs the N3KZ UHF linked repeater system (Internet-linked, AFAIK). It covers SE PA, some of NJ, and NE MD. I was scanning through the memories on my FT-7800R and caught a call on the one in Eagles Peak, Lebanon County, PA. I wound up having a nice chat with a new ham who was using the N3KZ repeater in Havre de Grace, MD. I'm about 50 miles from the Eagles Peak repeater. My rig was set to 10W connected to a Comet GP-3 on my roof, while he was on a Yaesu FT-60R HT with a roll-up J-pole.

Internet-linked repeaters are a nifty blend of old and new tech. Obviously, such a system is more vulnerable to going down in a major SHTF scenario but it's a nice option when it is up, especially for those hams who can only operate on VHF or UHF.

Here’s detailed info about the N3KZ system from

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: September 11, 2014, 10:41 pm

As reported in the news over the past couple days, the Earth was hit by a solar flare on 9/9.  An X-class coronal mass ejection is following the flare and is expected to hit us with a glancing blow early Friday morning, 9/12. When the flare hit HF radio transmissions were severely disrupted, e.g., 20M was pretty much wiped out for awhile.

Other than HF disruptions and some better than normal auroras, any other effects are likely to be minimal. That said, I’ll be unplugging my radio antennas and power cords tonight, just in case the predictions are wrong. Likeiwse, it wouldn’t be a bad idea to do things like fill the gas tanks in your vehicles and any spare gas cans, just in case.

Good sites to follow what’s going on with the Sun, solar flares, and CMEs are Solar Ham and Space Weather.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: September 11, 2014, 1:07 pm

Up until recently one downside of getting the Baofeng UV-5RA HT was that the extra capacity batteries made for the other variants of the UV-5R did not fit it. At the start of last week I found a 3600 mAH battery to fit the UV-5RA. It’s from eBay seller radioshop8888 located in Hong Kong. This link should take you directly to the battery.

The cost was $21 shipped from HK to the US.

Here are some pictures, with a regular Bic lighter for scale. First, the UV-5RA with the stock 1800 mAH battery, then with the 3600 mAH battery, and finally the two batteries together.

Note that my radio is fitted with a Nagoya NA-701 2M/70cm antenna. It provides a little better performance than the stock rubber duck.

Aside from having double the capacity of the OEM battery, the extended battery makes the HT easier to hold, especially when you’re trying to work the buttons while holding it with only one hand.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: September 2, 2014, 11:29 pm

As explained in Wikipedia:

Software-defined radio (SDR) is a radio communication system where components that have been typically implemented in hardware (e.g. mixers, filters, amplifiers, modulators/demodulators, detectors, etc.) are instead implemented by means of software on a personal computer or embedded system.

Traditionally, SDR has been an expensive endeavor. However, some clever hackers discovered that some very cheap TV tuner USB dongles based on the RTL2832U chip can be used as wide range radio receivers.

Back on August 9th I ordered one of these RTL2832U-based USB TV tuner dongles from Amazon for $8 and change. It shipped from China and arrived today. I then downloaded and installed SDR# using this quick start guide. So far, I just have it receiving FM broadcast signals. Here’s what it looks like tuned to the local classic rock station:


As described by Sparks, this $8 dongle can be used as an RF spectrum analyzer to discover what signals are in your area. This cheap piece of hardware plus some free software, and a laptop, Raspberry Pi, or BeagleBone Black system can be used as a portable, low-cost signals intelligence gathering system.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: August 28, 2014, 12:36 am
Ray, W3PRR, asked me for help on configuring Fldigi running on a Mac with OS 10.9.4 so that it can control an Icom 7200 radio. Here’s how I did it:

1. Get yourself a plain USB-A to USB-B cable, as used with most recent computer printers. This one at Amazon will work fine. The IC7200 has a built in sound card, and the USB cable will provide both rig control and audio input/output through the one cable.

2. Make sure the OS is up to date by running OS X’s Software Update.

3. You need to install the driver for the Silicon Labs CP210 USB-to-UART bridge, which is what provides the brains for the USB-B port on the back of the radio. You can download that here.

Note: Do not connect the radio to your Mac when you install the driver. Connect the radio after you install and reboot the Mac.

4. Download and install the Hamlib radio control libraries.

5. Download and install the latest version of Fldigi.

6. Connect and power on the radio to your computer using the USB cable. Make sure that the radio is in Data mode, and make sure that Data mode is set to U, so that it accepts audio and CAT commands through the USB port. See page 43 of the Icom 7200 Instruction Manual for details.

7.In Fldigi, under Configuration > Audio > Devices, select PortAudio, then USB Audio CODEC for both Capture and Playback. Click Save before you move to the next step.

Note: If the radio is not connected and powered on, the USB Audio CODEC option will not be visible.

8. Under Configuration > Rig use these settings.

Click Initialize, then Save, then Close.

At this point you should be able to see activity in the Fldigi waterfall (ASSuming there is anyone on frequency), and you should be able to transmit from within the program. The 20M PSK31 calling frequncy, 14.070 MHz, is a good frequency to use for testing because it tends to be active.
Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: August 26, 2014, 11:52 pm

The best bang for your buck in a survival knife is any one of the variations of the Swedish Mora. I have several floating around here, including two carbon steel Mora Clippers that I got from Amazon last week. One of them was bought specifically for use in the kitchen, while the other one is for garden and field use.

This pic shows one of the Mora Clippers along with my Cloudberry Market puukko that has become my primary field knife.

Both knives came with right handed sheaths. Since I’m a lefty, I made a new sheath for the puukko, and modded the Mora sheath. To do so, I used a Dremel cutoff wheel to remove the belt loop, then made a new loop on the other side of the sheath with a piece of nylon webbing, and secured it to the plastic sheath with Gorilla tape.

The two new Moras came shaving sharp. So far I’ve used one to cut up peppers in the kitchen, and the one shown above for cutting up a bunch of over ripe cauliflower that went into my compost bin. The cauliflower is responsible for the discoloration. Something in it immediately caused some oxidation, but the edge was unaffected.

It’s been my experience while camping and (back in the 80s) being involved in SAR missions that you can handle most of your cutting needs in temperate climes with a knife about this size. It’s no chopper, but if you need to chop things you’re much better off with an axe or hatchet, and a small folding saw is better yet.

Is a Mora the be-all, end-all survival knife? No. Something like my puukko is better made and has a slightly thicker, stronger blade. That said, the Mora Clippers currently sell for $13.92 on Amazon Prime. At that price you can afford to acquire multiples and stash them all over.

Aside from Amazon, another great source of the Mora knives, as well as some much nicer Nordic cutlery, is Ragnar’s Ragweed Forge. I’ve ordered other Moras and a nice puukko from Ragnar and always had a smooth transaction with quick delivery.

Author: Dave Markowitz
Posted: August 25, 2014, 12:22 am

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